The hottest research report on the shortage of ski

2022-08-13
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Research Report on the shortage of skilled workers

recently, we conducted field research on the shortage of skilled workers in Guangdong, Fujian and Zhejiang provinces. Combined with the questionnaire survey of skilled talents in 40 cities nationwide in April this year and the analysis of supply and demand in 113 cities' labor market in the second quarter of this year, the report is as follows:

first, the shortage of skilled workers is widespread nationwide

survey and statistical data show that, At present, the supply of skilled workers in China is in short supply, especially the serious shortage of highly skilled talents

1. The shortage of high skilled talents can no longer meet the needs of economic development. In April this year, our ministry conducted a sampling survey of skilled talents in 40 cities across the country. The results showed that technicians and senior technicians accounted for less than 4% of all skilled workers, while the proportion of enterprise demand was more than 14%. There was a large gap between supply and demand. The survey also found that the top three talents most urgently needed by enterprises are: marketing, senior technician, technician and senior technician, accounting for 14.4%, 12.1% and 10.9% of the demand of the surveyed enterprises respectively. It is worth noting that the demand for general skilled workers is also strong, ranking sixth, accounting for 8.9% of the demand of the surveyed enterprises. Coupled with the demand for senior technicians, technicians and senior technicians, the demand for skilled workers accounts for 31.9%

data source: the Ministry of labor and social security conducted a survey of 40 urban enterprises in April 2004

2. The analysis of labor market monitoring data in 113 cities nationwide in the second quarter of this year shows that workers of all technical levels are in short supply in the labor market, and there is a serious shortage of technicians and senior technicians. The ratio of the number of senior technicians, technicians, senior workers, intermediate and junior workers required by the enterprise to the number of job applicants is 2.4: 1, 2.1: 1, 1.8: 1, 1.5. The sealing of pressure oil uses the oil film between the oil cylinder and the piston: 1 and 1.5:1. At present, the demand ratio for skilled workers is greater than that for engineering technicians

data source: China labor market information monitoring center, "analysis of labor market supply and demand in some cities in the second quarter of 2004"

3. In areas with developed manufacturing industry, the shortage of skilled workers, especially senior skilled talents, is more serious. In the second quarter of this year, the employment demand of manufacturing industry in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, accounted for 40% respectively, ranking first in all industries. In the second quarter, 275 senior technicians and technicians were needed for enterprise registration, but no one applied for them; The ratio of the demand of senior workers to the number of applicants has reached 4.8:1, and the ratio of the demand of intermediate workers and junior workers to the number of applicants is 1.5:1 and 1.7:1 respectively

as China's heavy industry base, the three northeastern provinces are in serious shortage of skilled workers, especially highly skilled talents. According to the survey at the end of last year, senior workers, technicians and senior technicians accounted for 8.8% of skilled workers in Liaoning, 7.1% in Jilin and 6.1% in Heilongjiang. Even in Shanghai, which has a strong equipment manufacturing industry, this proportion is only 9.4%

according to a recent survey of 306 enterprises in Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan and other cities in Guangdong Province, 128 enterprises urgently need to recruit 18000 skilled workers, while quite few candidates meet the recruitment conditions of enterprises. In addition, the survey also shows that skilled workers and technical school graduates are the most popular in enterprises, regardless of gender, are very popular

4. With the rapid development of China's economy, the deepening of economic globalization and the rapid change of science and technology, the demand for skilled talents, especially high skilled talents, is showing an increasingly strong momentum. It is estimated that by the end of the tenth five year plan, the total demand for skilled workers in China will increase by 20% to 25%. Among them, the proportion of skilled workers above senior level is expected to increase by percentage points, especially the demand for technicians and senior technicians will double

second, the main reason for the shortage of skilled workers is not to drift with the tide; Finally, we should make unremitting integration work during mergers and acquisitions

1. The current education system emphasizes academic education and ignores skill training, which is the main reason for the shortage of skilled workers. In recent years, with the rapid development of China's economy and the continuous upgrading of the industrial structure, the demand for skilled workers and highly skilled talents has greatly increased, but the training of skilled workers is far from meeting the needs of enterprises. Although the shortage of skilled workers has long appeared, the development of technician education and training is still difficult to adapt. Some universities fail to plan their majors and courses based on market demand, which leads to great blindness. The phenomenon of major convergence is very serious, causing supply to be seriously greater than demand. For example, the employment rate of graduates from the 10 majors with the fastest growth in recent years, the Ministry of education, fell comprehensively in 2002, of which art and design fell by 21.6 percentage points, and the employment rate was only 59.7%. At present, there are more than 20000 vocational schools of all kinds, but only more than 200 senior technical schools and technician colleges have the main goal of cultivating talents for backup high skilled plastic packaging materials enterprises. Due to insufficient funds, limited scale, aging equipment and facilities, the waiting for graduates has not been well solved, so it is difficult to quickly cultivate a large number of high skilled talents in a short time

2. the enterprise has not invested enough in the training of employees, and the practice of only using and not training has further aggravated the shortage of skilled workers. Enterprises do not play a major role in training high skilled talents, and the investment in staff skill training is seriously insufficient. In April this year, our ministry conducted a sampling survey on the status of skilled talents in 40 cities across the country. The results show that most enterprises have carried out training in name, but in fact, the cost of staff training is not high. In 2003, the per capita education investment of enterprises for employed persons was only 195 yuan, and the investment of enterprise staff education accounted for 1.4% of the total wages of employees, which did not reach the minimum proportion of 1.5% stipulated by the state. At the same time, some enterprises have short-term behaviors of being eager for quick success and instant benefits after changing their operating mechanisms, emphasizing the use of employees rather than training, or even using only without training. This survey shows that more than half of the enterprises spend less than 20% of the staff education funds on the training of skilled workers. Among them, 58.5% of the enterprises that spend less than 20% of the staff education funds on the training of skilled workers, 26.9% of the enterprises that account for 20-50%, and 14.6% of the enterprises that account for more than 50%

3. there is no evaluation, incentive and flow mechanism for highly skilled talents. In terms of the evaluation method of skilled talents, there are boundaries of proportion, age, qualification and identity, and a new evaluation system of skilled talents is not established, which is oriented by the unclear local ability of the profession, focuses on work performance, and pays attention to professional ethics and professional knowledge level. In terms of incentives for skilled talents, enterprises, especially state-owned enterprises that use more highly skilled talents, have not established an income distribution mechanism that encourages skilled workers in the production and operation front line to study technology and business and strive to improve their own quality. Outside the enterprise, due to the lack of a flexible flow environment for skilled talents, it has not achieved the desired value of skilled talents in the flow, so as to gradually improve the return on human capital investment of skilled talents and achieve the purpose of encouraging skilled talents to invest

III. trend judgment and Countermeasures

although governments at all levels, industries and enterprises have done some work in the cultivation of high skilled talents, the total amount and structure of high skilled talents in China can not adapt to the rapid economic development, the cultivation of high skilled talents has not yet formed a systematic project of the whole society, and the development, incentive mechanism and environmental construction of high skilled talents need to be strengthened, As a result, the highly skilled talents urgently needed by enterprises in the near future cannot be cultivated more and faster, and there is still a huge gap with the demand of production development

as the central government and all parts of the country have begun to take measures to strengthen the training of skilled talents, the national talent work conference and the national vocational education work conference have put forward clear requirements to promote the project of training high skilled talents and the implementation of the "three-year 500000" new technician training plan in practical work. If these measures can be implemented and adhered to for a long time, the shortage of skilled workers will be gradually alleviated

At present, we need to focus on the following work:

first, accelerate the construction of skilled personnel, especially improve the vocational skills of the vast rural labor force, and cultivate hundreds of millions of high-quality workers. Governments at all levels should place the training of skilled personnel in a more important position in economic and social development and take it into account in the overall planning of national economic and social development. The government shall put forward relevant requirements for the training and use of skilled workers to the applicants and bidders during the examination and approval and bidding of major projects. We should raise funds through multiple channels and establish an investment mechanism for skilled personnel training shared by the state, enterprises and individual workers. In vocational education and training, we should vigorously implement the system of paying equal attention to academic diplomas and vocational qualification certificates, and promote the combination of vocational education and employment. We will implement the "2003-2010 national training plan for migrant workers" and do a good job in vocational skills training for rural labor. Adhere to the principles of "employment guidance training", "training with output, and training to promote output", promote the integration of training and employment, gradually form a mechanism of "training first, then output", and pay close attention to the organization and implementation of the "sunshine project for rural labor transfer training"

second, strengthen enterprise training and speed up training. The main body of the "three-year 500000" new technician training plan is the enterprise. Enterprises should be guided to implement the social policy of 1.5-2.5% of the total wages of employees for employee education. In enterprises, training before employment and training before employment are generally implemented. Industries and enterprise groups should establish business refresher and training systems for highly skilled talents, carry out skill upgrading and on-the-job training, improve the measures of famous teachers and apprentices, and widely carry out technical training, observation, discussion, research and other activities, so as to strive to cultivate a new force of highly skilled talents and build a stage for highly skilled talents to play a role. We should give full play to the leading role of old technicians, give full play to the role of training bases such as senior technical schools, technician colleges and higher vocational colleges, expand the scale of training and improve the effect of training

third, we should improve the evaluation method of skilled talents and promptly introduce the regulations on vocational training and assessment. Speed up the establishment of a new evaluation system for skilled talents, which is oriented by professional ability, focuses on work performance, and pays attention to professional ethics and professional knowledge. We should break through the boundaries of proportion, age, qualifications and identity, and promote the rapid and better growth of highly skilled talents. We need to improve the national vocational qualification certificate system and institutionalize it through the regulations on vocational training and assessment. At the same time, an incentive mechanism should be established to give full play to the important role of highly skilled talents. Vigorously promote the practice of "combining use with training and assessment, and linking treatment with performance contribution", and gradually establish a treatment mechanism for employees to be used and promoted by skills and professional qualifications, and determine income distribution by performance contribution. Improve the treatment level of highly skilled talents, and gradually realize that technicians, senior technicians and corresponding professional technicians enjoy the same treatment in terms of wages and benefits. Establish and improve the talent security mechanism to create a good social environment for all kinds of talents

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