Measures to reduce the logistics cost of the hotte

2022-09-22
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Modern logistics is known as the "third profit source" after labor and natural resources, and the key to ensure the realization of this profit source is to reduce the logistics cost of enterprises. Composition of logistics costs

the United States divides logistics costs into inventory costs, transportation costs and logistics management costs

inventory expenses refer to the expenses spent on preserving goods, including storage, damage, labor costs, insurance and taxes, as well as the interest of the funds occupied by inventory. Adding the interest of the funds occupied by inventory to the logistics cost is the biggest difference between modern logistics and traditional logistics cost calculation. It unifies reducing logistics cost and accelerating capital turnover

transportation costs include road transportation, other transportation costs and cargo owner costs. Road transportation includes intra city transportation and inter regional truck transportation; Other transportation modes include railway transportation, international and domestic transportation, oil and gas pipeline transportation, etc; The owner's expenses include the operation and handling expenses of the transportation department

logistics management costs in the United States are determined by experts at a fixed proportion based on the historical situation of the United States, multiplied by the sum of inventory costs and transportation costs

current situation of operating costs of logistics enterprises in China

due to the influence of many factors, the logistics costs in China are much higher than those in developed countries. According to relevant data, the operating costs of logistics enterprises in China are the highest among the countries counted. The logistics costs of Britain, the United States, Japan, Singapore and other countries account for 10.1%, 10.5%, 11.4% and 13.9% of GDP respectively; In China, logistics costs account for 16.9% of GDP in the mainland, 13.7% in Hong Kong and 13.1% in Taiwan

1. The high logistics inventory and transportation costs are mainly caused by the backward infrastructure of China's logistics enterprises. On the macro level, the national finance has not invested enough in the construction of logistics infrastructure, which is much lower than the world average level, and the contradiction between transportation has become increasingly prominent. The logistics industry has been lack of modern transportation and logistics distribution network technology system; Compared with developed countries, the no-load rate of freight is as high as 60%, and the storage volume is five times that of the United States; The current national value-added tax policy does not allow enterprises to deduct the input tax of fixed assets, which restricts the demand for fixed assets renewal of logistics enterprises; At the same time, the layout of logistics infrastructure is unreasonable, with 54% in the East, 30% in the middle and 16% in the west, which is also the reason why logistics transportation costs remain high. At the micro level, the internal facilities of China's logistics industry are backward, most of which were built or configured in the 1960s and 1970s. Most of them are old or aging, and the level of loading, unloading and handling mechanization is low, which is difficult to meet the needs of economic development. Most enterprises are transformed from the Department of social materials allocated by the state during the planned economy period. They only pay attention to social benefits and ignore economic benefits. Their own expansion and reproduction funds are seriously insufficient, and they are unable to update and transform technical equipment. The backward infrastructure of logistics enterprises leads to the low transportation efficiency of the logistics industry, the low modernization level of enterprise transportation and storage, and the low degree of professional operation. At present, the purchase, transportation and voucher preparation of most logistics enterprises in China are mainly completed manually. The circulation cycle of goods is long, the inventory is large, and the inventory is even proud of having imported instruments. The cost is high

2. The high cost of logistics management is mainly reflected in two aspects:

first, the management level is backward. The quality of managers in most logistics enterprises in China is low, and those with technical secondary school education or above account for only 7.5% of the total number of employees in the logistics industry, which is much lower than that in other industries; Many managers' concepts have not been completely changed and cannot adapt to market demand in time, which is the main reason for the small scale of most logistics enterprises in China. Taking the warehousing industry as an example, most of the warehousing industry in China's logistics industry was founded in the 1950s and 1960s. It has rich land and warehouse resources, and has the foundation and customer base for long-term logistics industry. However, the average handling times of warehouses are only 3 ~ 4, and the utilization rate is very low

secondly, information technology is backward. China's traditional logistics business model focuses on warehousing, transportation, loading and unloading, and maintenance. They do not attach importance to commodity distribution, circulation and processing, information transformation within enterprises, the introduction of logistics technology, and the collection, processing and release of logistics information. At present, the electronic level of most logistics enterprises is low, and the means of information processing and processing are backward. The level of information processing is only equivalent to 2.1% of the world average level. The high cost of logistics further aggravates the high cost pressure of this link and reduces the market competitiveness of enterprises

reducing logistics costs has become the most important problem

1 Speed up the construction of facilities and improve the efficiency of logistics

the state should take logistics as a supporting industry, and pay attention to whether the joint gasket can fully raise construction funds, increase the investment in the logistics industry and logistics infrastructure, and increase the capital investment in the technological transformation of logistics enterprises. The financial department should give tax relief according to the current actual operating capacity of enterprises Reduce the debt burden left by enterprises; In terms of tax policy, transportation will also be included in the scope of value-added tax collection, and input tax deduction will be implemented for logistics enterprises to purchase transportation equipment and facilities, so as to reduce logistics costs of logistics enterprises; Unified management of logistics resources, reasonable layout of logistics networks, bringing logistics enterprises into the scope of networks, and reasonable logistics process planning. The logistics industry should also take advantage of the opportunity of "WTO entry" to attract foreign investors to invest in the domestic logistics field, and step up the transformation of older logistics storage facilities. Focus on the development of modern warehousing, storage, transportation and other links, realize electronic and intelligent management, and reduce enterprise logistics costs

make great efforts to realize the modernization of enterprise equipment. With the rapid development of the logistics industry, more and more new technologies and equipment are widely used in the logistics industry, such as global positioning system (GPS), Internet technology, bar code and reading technology, electronic data exchange, radio frequency identification technology, automatic control technology, robots and high-speed and flexible means of transportation. The wide use of these technologies can promote the rapid response and standardized operation of logistics enterprises, effectively reduce the phenomenon of delayed inventory and delivery, and greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy of enterprise operations

2. Improve management level

with the rise of new online consumption formats, speed up the talent construction of logistics enterprises. In order to promote the development of logistics industry, the United States has set up Logistics Majors in secondary schools in Colleges and universities, and some colleges and universities also have graduate courses and degree education. At the same time, the American Logistics Association organized a comprehensive logistics on-the-job education, which has trained a large number of professional talents for the logistics industry. China should improve the education system as soon as possible, establish the discipline system and talent training system of Logistics Specialty in China, establish a multi-level logistics talent education and training system, and improve the management level of existing logistics managers through training and other ways. At the same time, carry out vocational and technical education for employees of logistics enterprises, strengthen quality training, vigorously popularize and publicize logistics knowledge, cultivate professional talents with modern knowledge and comprehensive logistics management talents in line with China's national conditions, improve enterprise management level and reduce logistics costs

realize the informatization of logistics enterprises. The informatization of enterprises is to realize the informatization of enterprise management and the networking of enterprise operation. The core of enterprise management informatization is to constantly transform and optimize the internal management characteristics of the enterprise, and break the current management situation of department independence and information decentralization. The key is to use the intranet of the enterprise to connect its internal departments, so that the information resources of the original departments become the common resources of the whole enterprise; At the same time, the intranet inside the enterprise is connected with the backbone of the Internet, strengthen the information communication with the branches in different locations of the enterprise, and increase the sharing and reuse of information resources, so as to establish and improve the internal and unified information management system of the enterprise, greatly reduce the repeated investment of equipment and manpower, and reduce the operation cost of the enterprise. The networking of enterprise operation, that is, it is discharged into the environment without treatment or recycling after the completion of intranet or synthesis. Net or inter net, electronic data interchange (EDI) and computer technologies, such as transaction, settlement, after-sales service, etc. At the same time, networking construction can connect logistics enterprises in the same industry and different industries, forming a large-scale pattern of sharing manpower, equipment, technology and information. In addition, under the function of network, logistics enterprises can connect manufacturers and customers, achieve two-way services, and complete the logistics business in any international and domestic regions in the shortest time, so as to greatly optimize the operation process of logistics enterprises

source: China logistics bidding

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